A cyber attack targeting the Houses of Parliament has caused a data breach after email accounts including a select committee’s mailbox were compromised.
Investigators found that under 0.5 per cent of 9,000 accounts were compromised during the “sustained and determined” attempt last month, which resulted in part of the parliamentary email system being taken offline.
A spokesperson for the Houses of Parliament said officials representing both the Commons and Lords notified the Information Commissioner’s Office of a data breach in the wake of the attack.
In the case of one compromised mailbox, for an unidentified House of Commons select committee, 77 people have been notified that their personal information could be at risk as investigations into the potential impact continue.
A total of 39 accounts operated by 26 people, including six MPs, a member of the House of Lords, administrative staff and a sub-contractor, were hit by the attack.
“These compromises were made possible by the use of passwords that were compliant with the technical controls in place but did not conform to guidance issued by the Parliamentary Digital Service,” a spokesperson said.
“Three of the six MPs had accounts compromised because their mailboxes were linked to their members of staff whose passwords were compromised.
“We have invested heavily in cyber security measures and will continue to do so.
“A series of technology changes – including multi-factor authentication – have already been made to increase security.”
An email sent to everyone using a parliamentary address on 23 June said “unusual activity and evidence of an attempted cyber attack” had been discovered.
“Closer investigation by our team confirmed that hackers were carrying out a sustained and determined attack on all parliamentary user accounts in attempt to identify weak passwords,” it continued.
“These attempts specifically were trying to gain access to users’ emails.”
The National Crime Agency and National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) are investigating who was responsible, with initial suspicion turning to Russia and North Korea.
Analysts said the hacking attempt used “brute force” tactics and could have been mounted by either state-sponsored actors or criminal gangs to steal valuable information.
Oz Alashe, a former special forces Lieutenant Colonel and chief executive officer of cyber security platform CybSafe, said email accounts were a “rich source of information for hackers”
He told The Independent criminal hackers “harvest information” including passwords, addresses and credit card numbers before selling them online, where they can be picked up and used by other actors, including foreign states.
“Many people use the same passwords for different accounts – it’s not unusual,” he added.
“That’s why so many attackers are after these things – once they compromise one account they can sell the password to be used to access others.”
The attempt came days after reports that Russian hackers had put passwords belonging to thousands of MPs, parliamentary staff, police employees and Foreign Office officials up for sale online.
The information was believed to have been stolen from LinkedIn, MySpace and other smaller sites, with many passwords “easy to guess”, incorporating memorable numbers and relatives’ names.
Chris Pogue, a member of the US Secret Service Electronic Crimes Task Force, said hackers used machines that can “guess 10 million passwords a second”.
He equated the method of attack used on Parliament to “shooting fish in a barrel” amid a lack of awareness over secure passwords and the failure to separate systems handling sensitive and non-sensitive information.
Mr Pogue, the head of services, security, and partner integration at Australian technology firm Nuix, told The Independent: “Victims tend to overstate complexity and understate impact.
“A ‘brute force’ attack doesn’t mean I’m going to make guesses as a human being, one after the other.
“What they do is build massive password databases based on every single dictionary word, cognate and misspelling.
“They can blow through your dog’s name from when you were four years old in about 30 seconds.”
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Fears of a cyber attack on Parliament had increased following the successful hacks targeting emails related to Hillary Clinton and Emmanuel Macron’s presidential campaigns.
The UK was also rocked by the WannaCry ransomware attack that hit computers running outdated versions of Microsoft Windows around the world last month.
Infecting more than 230,000 computers in 150 countries, it had a devastating effect on the NHS as computers were left displaying only a page demanding bitcoin payments to decrypt files.
A report on vulnerabilities in British defence released by the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) earlier this month warned of the growing threat of cyber attacks.
Enemies could take out military and civilian communication satellites and navigation systems, the report said, or target the UK’s economy and crucial IT infrastructure causing chaos and panic.
“In any major future conflict, an important part of the battle will be threats to the UK’s critical national infrastructure from hostile cyber operations,” RUSI’s report concluded.
“The cyber threat spectrum is not only relevant to defence but to government as a whole, especially to critical national infrastructure and the broader economy.”
Vladimir Putin has denied supporting hackers to launch cyber attacks on enemy states including Ukraine, or interfere in elections in the US, France and elsewhere.
Last month he conceded that “patriotically-minded” hackers may have meddled in the American presidential election but added: “We’re not doing this on the state level.”