North Korea is often seen to be one of the most isolated countries in the present world. Yet, in one matter, the country is hyper connected: cyber warfare. Crossing e-swords with the West, the country has launched a string of attacks on government as well as private sector infrastructure. Curiously, there is an India angle in this conflict: North Korea launches few cyber attacks from its own soil. Instead it uses foreign computers. In India’s cases, often hackers are physically stationed in the country, launching cyber attacks on behalf of North Korea, reported the New York Times on Sunday.
North Korea was once a joke when it came to anything computers. It owned few machines and, therefore, had no expertise. Kim Jong-il, the father of the current dictator, however, changed that in the early 1990s. Jong-il saw the potential of computers to be used for espionage and began training people to do the task. His son and successor, Kim Jong-un expanded the programme beyond focusing just on government targets. North Korea now attacks private organisations with aims ranging from theft to political propaganda. The most famous of these was a 2014 attack on Sony Pictures for producing a comedy film on a plot to assassinate Kim Jong-Un. The hack was so successful that Sony had to cancel the release of the film.
On its part, the United States as well as South Korea have been using cyber warfare in order to try and hack the North’s nuclear as well as missile programme. However, the United States is stymied by the North’s outdated infrastructure and the fact that that most of its attacks actually originate from abroad – the largest base being India.
Hack in India
The New York Times reports cites a cyber security firm called Recorded Future to estimate that nearly a fifth of North Korea’s attacks originate from India. A report by the firm says:
“It is clear that North Korea has a broad physical and virtual presence in India. Characterised by the Indian Ministry of External Affairs as a relationship of ‘friendship, cooperation, and understanding’, the data we analysed supports the reports of increasingly close diplomatic and trade relationship between India and North Korea.
Patterns of activity suggest that North Korea may have students in at least seven universities around the country and may be working with several research institutes and government departments.”
The report, however, goes on to suggest that India might also be a victim, with Recorded Future detecting activity targeting the Indian Space Research Organisation’s National Remote Sensing Centre and the Indian National Metallurgical Laboratory. However, the report concluded that it “could not confirm malicious behavior” in this regards.
While India does maintain diplomatic ties with North Korea, as it grows closer to the United States, New Delhi has downgraded relations with Kim Jong-Un’s regime. The Modi government recently supported a United Nations move to ban all trade with North Korea.
Two individuals, with sombre faces, are immersed in conversation in a sunlit classroom. This image is the theme across WHO’s 2017 campaign ‘Depression: let’s talk’ that aims to encourage people suffering from depression or anxiety to seek help and get assistance. The fact that depression is the theme of World Health Day 2017 indicates the growing global awareness of mental health. This intensification of the discourse on mental health unfortunately coincides with the global rise in mental illness. According to the latest estimates from WHO, more than 300 million people across the globe are suffering from depression, an increase of 18% between 2005 and 2015.
In India, the National Mental Health Survey of India, 2015-16, conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) revealed the prevalence of mental disorders in 13.7% of the surveyed population. The survey also highlighted that common mental disorders including depression, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders affect nearly 10% of the population, with 1 in 20 people in India suffering from depression. Perhaps the most crucial finding from this survey is the disclosure of a huge treatment gap that remains very high in our country and even worse in rural areas.
According to the National Mental Health Programme, basic psychiatric care is mandated to be provided in every primary health centre – the state run rural healthcare clinics that are the most basic units of India’s public health system. The government provides basic training for all primary health centre doctors, and pays for psychiatric medication to be stocked and available to patients. Despite this mandate, the implementation of mental health services in rural parts of the country continues to be riddled with difficulties:
In some rural parts of the country, a heavy social stigma exists against mental illness – this has been documented in many studies including the NIMHANS study mentioned earlier. Mental illness is considered to be the “possession of an evil spirit in an individual”. To rid the individual of this evil spirit, patients or family members rely on traditional healers or religious practitioners. Lack of awareness on mental disorders has led to further strengthening of this stigma. Most families refuse to acknowledge the presence of a mental disorder to save themselves from the discrimination in the community.
Lack of healthcare services
The average national deficit of trained psychiatrists in India is estimated to be 77% (0.2 psychiatrists per 1,00,000 population) – this shows the scale of the problem across rural and urban India. The absence of mental healthcare infrastructure compounds the public health problem as many individuals living with mental disorders remain untreated.
The scarcity of healthcare services also means that poor families have to travel great distances to get good mental healthcare. They are often unable to afford the cost of transportation to medical centres that provide treatment.
After focussed efforts towards awareness building on mental health in India, The Live Love Laugh Foundation (TLLLF), founded by Deepika Padukone, is steering its cause towards understanding mental health of rural India. TLLLF has joined forces with The Association of People with Disability (APD), a non-governmental organisation working in the field of disability for the last 57 years to work towards ensuring quality treatment for the rural population living with mental disorders.
APD’s intervention strategy starts with surveys to identify individuals suffering from mental illnesses. The identified individuals and families are then directed to the local Primary Healthcare Centres. In the background, APD capacity building programs work simultaneously to create awareness about mental illnesses amongst community workers (ASHA workers, Village Rehabilitation Workers and General Physicians) in the area. The whole complex process involves creating the social acceptance of mental health conditions and motivating them to approach healthcare specialists.
Participants of the program.
When mental health patients are finally free of social barriers and seeking help, APD also mobilises its network to make treatments accessible and affordable. The organisation coordinates psychiatrists’ visits to camps and local healthcare centres and ensures that the necessary medicines are well stocked and free medicines are available to the patients.
We spent a lot of money for treatment and travel. We visited Shivamogha Manasa and Dharwad Hospital for getting treatment. We were not able to continue the treatment for long as we are poor. We suffered economic burden because of the long- distance travel required for the treatment. Now we are getting quality psychiatric service near our village. We are getting free medication in taluk and Primary Healthcare Centres resulting in less economic stress.
— A parent’s experience at an APD treatment camp.
In the two years TLLLF has partnered with APD, 892 and individuals with mental health concerns have been treated in the districts of Kolar, Davangere, Chikkaballapur and Bijapur in Karnataka. Over 4620 students participated in awareness building sessions. TLLLF and APD have also secured the participation of 810 community health workers including ASHA workers in the mental health awareness projects – a crucial victory as these workers play an important role in spreading awareness about health. Post treatment, 155 patients have resumed their previous occupations.
To mark World Mental Health Day, 2017, a team from TLLLF lead by Deepika Padukone visited program participants in the Davengere district.
Sessions on World Mental Health Day, 2017.
In the face of a mental health crisis, it is essential to overcome the treatment gap present across the country, rural and urban. While awareness campaigns attempt to destigmatise mental disorders, policymakers need to make treatment accessible and cost effective. Until then, organisations like TLLLF and APD are doing what they can to create an environment that acknowledges and supports people who live with mental disorders. To know more, see here.
This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of The Live Love Laugh Foundation and not by the Scroll editorial team.